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How would you like to live forever? Would you want to exist for all of eternity with the wisdom years have earned, and the vitality and taut skin that youth affords
If your answer is “yes”, you are not alone. One in five people would opt for immortality if given the choice. This was the result of several surveys including the 2018 New Scientist Asks the Public in the UK as well as the YouGov Omnibus in the US.
Mankind has always longed to live for a long, long time. The mortal fear of death has made immortality the holy grail for society. From legends of Greek gods to the story of Peter Pan, the Boy Who Wouldn’t Grow Up, cheating death to live forever has always captured the imagination.
But what is the point of living on and on if health fails and youth is gone? So, along with the desire for longevity has been the search for eternal youth. As early as 3AD, the Fountain of Youth – that mythical spring that returns youth to those who drink from it or bathe in it – had already surfaced in popular literature, introduced to the world through the Alexander romance that chronicled the exploits of Alexander the Great.
Myth aside, man has tried to fulfil desire with Science. In 2019, Dr Julian Chen ignited excitement with his research that suggested the possibility of arresting ageing.
Normal cells shrink and lose some DNA over time. Dr Chen’s study found a way to potentially stop the DNA shrinkage that leads to cell and organism death by stopping telomeres in the cells from shrinking. Telomeres are protective capping structures on DNA. Their length is one of best-established biomarkers of ageing because they shorten as we grow older, eroding the code that makes us who we are.
Like aglets, the plastic ends of shoelaces that prevent them from fraying, telomeres prevent DNA from unravelling. When they get too short, they can no longer prevent DNA from ravelling. When that happens, cells cannot divide. When cells cannot divide, it leads to cell death, weakness, illness, organ failure and, eventually, organism death.
If Dr Chen succeeds, cells would be able to continually divide and never die. Immortality would be achieved.
In a 2018 study by Dr Satchidananda Panda, it was suggested that time-based eating has a part to play in longevity. According to the professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, the body repairs itself when it is at rest. Toxins from food and the environment are broken down; damaged DNA, muscle, gut lining and skin are repaired; and fat is burned.
Restricting meal times allows the body to function according to its natural circadian rhythms, optimising physiology and health by coordinating cellular and tissue functions, and behaviour. This prevents chronic diseases and slows the characteristics of ageing.
What these reveal is that within our bodies’ chemistry and rhythm lie the key to arresting ageing and increasing life span. Here is where it gets interesting. Scientists have found a way to mimic some of the beneficial effects derived from such a time-restricted diet. The secret lies in something called NMN or nicotinamide Mononucleotide.
NMN is a nucleotide derived from ribose and nicotinamide that is found naturally in the body. A nucleotide is the basic building block of nucleic acids. Polymers RNA and DNA, for example, are made of long chains of nucleotides.
NMN is produced from B vitamins in the body using the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). It can also be made from dietary sources such as fruits, milk and vegetables. At the molecular level, it is a ribonucleotide, the basic structural unit of RNA. The NMN molecule is naturally found in all life forms.
NMN is the actual compound used by scientists to reverse several longevity bio-markers in old mice, sparking interest in research on arresting the ageing process.
It is also important to life and health because it generates essential molecule nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) in the body and is considered a key component for increasing NDA+ levels in cells.
NAD — which includes NAD+ and NADH — is a molecule that supports cellular function in a number of important ways including keeping DNA healthy, converting food into usable energy and regulating sleep-wake cycles. Low levels of NAD are associated with increased risk of heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, Alzheimer’s and accelerated ageing.
NDA+ is naturally produced in the body using five precursors – tryptophan, nicotinamide (Nam), nicotinic acid (NA, or niacin), nicotinamide riboside (NR), and nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN). Of these, NMN represents one of the final steps of NAD+ synthesis meaning NMN becomes NAD+ through a series of chemical transformations.
As with most functions in the body, NAD+ declines with age because we produce less NAD the older we get. We also use up more NAD as ageing bodies experience more damage and stress. When NAD levels fall, age-related problems result. By age 50, NAD+ levels in most people would have dropped to 50% of what exists at age 20. This leaves the body with fewer defences against sickness and the ageing process.
NAD+ levels cannot be increased by administering NAD+ to the organism because NAD+ molecules generally cannot readily cross cell membranes to enter cells. So, NAD+ supplements have very little effect when introduced into the body.
Recent research showed that NAD+ can cross the blood-brain barrier to reach the hypothalamus if taken sublingually. When this happens, NAD+ levels can be boosted in this gland which will benefit the whole body because the gland controls metabolism.
But for NAD+ levels to increase in the cells throughout the body, NAD+ precursors like NMN need to be given. Mice given an oral supplement of NMN saw an increase in their liver NAD+ levels within 10 minutes and an increase in muscle tissues in half an hour.
Scientist first discovered NAD+ in 1906. This powerful and essential coenzyme – molecules that help enzymes in their function as catalysts in biochemical reactions – is found in every cell and necessary for several critical processes in our body. Besides water, it is the most abundant molecule in the body.
NAD+ is necessary for sustaining and extending life, cellular functions and fighting ageing. Because it is central to providing energy to cells, there is no biological process that can take place without it.
NAD+ also aids DNA repair. DNA damage accumulates with age due to imprecise DNA replication as well as environmental factors such as radiation and pollution. Within each cell is the molecular machinery to repair this damage. What fuels the machinery are NAD+ and other energy molecules.
In animal studies, increasing NAD+ levels in the body has beneficial effects on metabolism, age-related diseases – diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, neurodegeneration – and ageing itself.
NAD+ is important for mitochondria as well. Mitochondria are the powerhouses of cells, generating the chemical energy our bodies use. NAD+ has an active role in metabolic processes such as glycolysis, the TCA Cycle (), and the electron transport chain.
NAD+ is used by many proteins throughout the body, too. Among the proteins that need NAD+ is Sirtuins or SIRT1 genes. NAD+ is crucial for activating SIRT1 genes. Without NAD+, these genes, also known as “guardian of genes”, cannot work properly or perform their role of controlling ageing by protecting organisms from deterioration and disease. Working amongst many cellular pathways that determine cell death, Sirtuins turn anti-ageing genes on and off, help repair DNA and regulate metabolic rate.
Animal studies show that boosting NAD+ can improve muscle generation, cardiovascular function, and glucose metabolism. While this is hopeful, studies need to be conducted on humans to see if these benefits translate to humans.
While NMN can cross cells, it does not do this easily. One way for NMN to enter cells is for it to chemically become another molecule – nicotinamide riboside or NR – before doing so, then becoming NMN again before being transformed into NAD+. So, as a precursor to NAD+, NR is more efficient because it requires no chemical transformation to penetrate cells.
However, in early 2019, research showed that NMN requires being transformed into NR to enter only certain types of cells. There are certain transporters – proteins that are doors on the cell – that allow NMN molecules to enter as they are. These cells, however, are located in the gut of mice and only works if sodium ions are present. There have not been any similar studies in humans yet.
NMN does not have intrinsic value. Much of its benefits are really the benefits of NDA+ because NMN is what is needed to produce NDA+.
As the world races to find a vaccine against the coronavirus, NMN may present us some hope on this front. Gerontologists who study the biology of ageing believe that therapeutics that target ageing may provide a novel way to beat this new bug.
This is how they think it would work. Statistics tell us that COVID-19 affects the elderly more. 13.4% of patients aged 80 and above die from the virus compared to 1.25% and 0.06% of patients in their 50s and 20s, respectively. Age, according to a study from the University of Oxford, is the most substantial risk factor of COVID-19 death.
Because of this, scientists believe that treating ageing may be the long-term key to protecting the vulnerable aged against COVID-19 and other infectious diseases. In fact, a recent study listed NAD+ precursors like NMN and NR as one of the potential treatments of coronavirus.
The science behind how NMN works gives them much hope. When NAD+ molecules are available to SIRT1 genes, they enhance the latter’s ability to protect the body against deterioration and diseases. In fact, studies are beginning to reveal NAD+’s role in regulating the immune system, triggering it to protect the body against diseases including COVID-19.
In a review published on March 23, 2020 by Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, there was evidence that low NAD+ levels could be linked to higher severity and morbidity rates for those stricken with COVID-19. In the report, consuming NAD+ or Vitamin B3 plus L-tryptophan could replenish NAD+ levels as well as serotonin and aid recovery.
In addition, macrophages – a type of white blood cell that eats potential invaders such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses – use a pathway synthesised by NAD+ to ensure cell survival and inflammation control.
During the body’s fight against infections, it also uses up NAD+, weakening the body. As such, elevated levels of NMN and the resulting increase in NAD+ levels can play an important role in not just boosting the immune system to help people fight off infections and illnesses, but also strengthening the body in its fight.
In animal studies involving yeast, worms and mice, when NDA+ levels are raised, Sirtuins are activated and lifespans are increased. Organisms with Sirtuins put in them saw their lifespans extend by 5% to 20%.
Studies are still being done to see if this is the case with humans as well. The first study of NMN in humans was published in 2016 and showed that a single dose of up to 500mg was tolerable. More research needs to be done to fully understand the effects of increased levels of NAD+ via supplements in humans.
Cells need fuel to power their functions. As cells age, they cease to function properly in a condition known as cellular senescence or biological ageing. This has negative effects on cells, tissues and organs.
Cells become larger and less able to divide and multiply. Water builds up in tissues. Connective tissues stiffen, making organs as well as blood vessels and airways more rigid. Many tissues also lose their mass or atrophy. Degeneration and disease result.
What contributes to this biological ageing and its effects is a fall in NDA+ levels. There is increasing evidence to show that a decrease in NAD+ plays a critical role in age-related neurovascular and cerebromicrovascular dysfunctions.
That is why boosting NDA+ – through precursors like NMN and NR – is thought to be able to halt the ageing process because NDA+ is the fuel that helps Sirtuins sustain genome integrity and promote DNA repair.
When NDA+ binds with Sirtuins, it can activate or silence gene expressions related to fat and glucose metabolism. This is because Sirtuins – seven of them found in humans – control ageing.
Studies demonstrate that restoring cellular NAD+ levels in aged mice rescues neurovascular function, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves performance on cognitive tasks. Of the 590 genes differentially expressed in the aged neurovascular unit, 204 of which were restored toward youthful expression levels by NMN treatment.
There has been new research, though, that has given NMN a greater role in this fuel-enhancing role. Previously it was thought that NMN was only able to contribute by transforming into NAD+. But a Washington University School of Medicine study published in the Nature Metabolism journal points to the possibility that NMN can be delivered directly into cells without being converted into NAD+, making the NMN able to work faster.
Meanwhile, NMN administered in drinking water for a year improved metabolism in mice as well and prevented age-related loss of bone density and eye function. Once more, these are animal studies and more needs to be done with humans to ascertain the benefits of NMN.
However, tests have been conducted only on animals. One bright spark in this has been well-known Harvard University geneticist David Sinclair. In 2019, he made a bold assertion that he had reduced his biological age by 20 years and he had scientific data to prove it. He maintained that he had the lung capacity, cholesterol and blood pressure of a young man and the heart rate of an athlete. To date, there have been no published scientific research to back up his claims.
Scientist also discovered that when NMN was combined with proper diet and exercise, it was better able to stave off ageing with little side effects.
Remember mitochondria, the powerhouses of cells? They hold the key to youthfulness as well. Researchers who engineered a mouse with a gene that could switch mitochondrial on and off found that when they turned this gene on mitochondria became dysfunctional. When they turned the gene off mitochondrial function could be restored.
Within a few weeks of making mitochondria dysfunctional, the mouse exhibited visible signs of ageing – wrinkles appeared, hair fell out. When mitochondria function was restored, the signs of ageing disappeared. Within a month, skin smoothened and hair grew back. Ageing was reversed.
Since NAD+ helps mitochondria function, there is hope that NMN supplements can boost NAD+ and mitochondria function leading to improved skin elasticity and fewer wrinkles.
Bone tissues continually break down and get replenished. However, with age, bone renewal becomes less efficient and the body is less able to keep up with old bone removal.
Chinese scientists from Sun Yat-Sen University have discovered that NMN could promote bone generation in mice by stimulating a group of stem cells to differentiate into bone cells instead of fat. The results were published in Nature 2019.
This offers hope that NMN may help fight osteoporosis, another side effect of ageing.
Other side effects of ageing such as deteriorating eye-sight and hearing can be alleviated with NMN as well.
NMN supplements appear to promote tear production which helps dry eye syndrome that increases with age. Retina function also improved. In the study, older mice were given NMN and it reduced these signs of ageing. Interestingly, younger mice did not appear to benefit from the NMN.
People tend to gain weight as they grow older even though they maintain the same level of physical activity and calorie intake. This is due to several factors. One is the decrease of lipid turnover in the fat tissue as cells decline with age. This leads to accumulations of fats.
Loss of lean muscles also occur with age. Since lean muscles requires more calories than fats, the body will require fewer calories with age. If you continue eating as you did when you were younger, weight gain takes place.
NMN appears to be able to curb age-related weight gain. In a 2016 study, mice given NMN supplements over 12 months saw their fat mass decrease and lean mass increase, meaning they lost weight while building muscles. In one study, over a 12-week period, mice who consumed the equivalent of 25mg/kg of NMN lost 9% of their body fat without reducing calorie intake.
How NMN does this is by increasing cellular energy in the form of ATP or Adenosine triphosphate, a molecule that carries energy within cells, through the interconversion of NAD+ and NADH as a part of beta oxidation, glycolysis, the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. This energy is needed to power cell and organ functions as well as reduce oxidative stress. When cells have power, they do not decline. All the effects of cell decline, including decrease in lipid turnover in the fat tissues that leads to obesity, are also halted.
NMN also aids weight loss by increasing NAD+ levels. NAD+ has been recognised as a central signalling molecule and enzyme co-factor involved in a variety of fundamental biological processes including energy metabolism, lifespan regulation, DNA repair, apoptosis, and telomere maintenance. Since NAD+ levels reduce with age and obesity, increasing NAD+ levels with NMN combats weight gain.
In that same study, the mice also saw their metabolism increase. They experienced enhanced energy metabolism, greater physical activity, improved insulin sensitivity and plasma lipid profile, ameliorated eye function and other pathophysiologies.
NMN was able to prevent age-associated gene expression changes in key metabolic organs, and enhanced mitochondrial oxidative metabolism and mitonuclear protein imbalance in skeletal muscles. NMN appeared, then, to have both preventive and therapeutic potential when it comes to intervening in the ageing process.
Other studies even saw the effects of diabetes reversed in female mice, showing new strategies to fight metabolic disorders, such as obesity.
Ischemia is the lack of blood supply to body parts that can lead to life-threatening conditions such as heart attacks and strokes. Although restoring blood supply seems to be the obvious solution, it can sometimes lead to reperfusion injury. This is when inflammation and oxidative damage occurs when blood flow is restored because of unstable oxygen molecules.
In 2014, a group of researchers from Rutgers New Jersey Medical School discovered that NMN could protect the heart from ischemia and reperfusion injury in mice. When ischemia happens, NAD+ levels in the body falls. Since NMN helps increase NAD+ levels, it could protect the heart from injuries caused by ischemia and reperfusion.
NAD+ has the added advantage of being able to prevent abnormal heart enlargement caused by high blood pressure.
In mice with Alzheimer’s, raising the NAD+ level decreased protein build-up that disrupted cell communication in the brain. This led to increased cognitive functions.
Increasing NAD+ levels also protected brain cells from dying when there was insufficient blood flow to the brain.
These studies in animals offer hope that NMN can help our brains age healthily and improve human memory.
As we age, much of our bodily functions experience a decline. The immune system is not spared. This is why the elderly are more vulnerable to diseases and have a more difficult time recovering from illnesses.
Recent studies have suggested that NAD+ levels play an important role in regulating inflammation and cell survival during immune response and ageing. This means boosting NAD+ levels through NMN can strengthen the immune system.
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a genetic muscle disorder that causes muscle weakness and atrophy or wasting. Named for the muscles it affects – face (facio), shoulder blades (scapula) and upper arms (humeral) – its effects appear before age 20, though sometimes as early as in infancy. Apart from muscular degeneration, FSHD can cause hearing loss and blood vessel abnormalities in the back of the eye. There is no cure for it nor any known treatment to halt or reverse its effects.
However, several laboratory studies have indicated that NMN supplements may have a positive effect on various muscular dystrophies. NMN is a precursor of NAD+ and NAD+ has an important role in generating mitochondria. Mitochnodria is responsible for providing most of the chemical energy required to power biochemical reactions in cells, breaking down the nutrients from food to do so.
Apart from aiding in energy production, inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance and weight gain, memory and cognition in Alzheimer’s disease, cardiac function, NAD+ has been found to have a corelation to a gene involved in muscular dystrophies including FSHD. In mice, as expression of genes responsible for the disease rose, expression of genes involved in the generation of mitochondria and NAD+ synthesis fell.
The same study further discovered that NR supplements had positive effects on the mice subjects. NR, the molecule NMN becomes before turning into NAD+, improved mitochondrial energy dynamics, improved running capacity, protected animals from and reversed muscle damage, and decreased muscle inflammation. In theory, this bodes well for FSHD.
More studies need to be done to understand the effects of NAD+ supplements on muscular dystrophies but there are scientific indications that while it may not cure the disease, it may alleviate some of its symptoms such as muscle damage, muscle pain and fatigue.
Microvascular dysfunction contributes to diabetic retinopathy (DR). DR is caused by damage to the blood vessels of light-sensitive tissues in the retina which can eventually lead to blindness.
One research showed that diabetic rats had decreased levels of NAMPT and NAD+. NAMPT is what the body uses, along with B vitamins, to produce NMN. When given NMN supplements, NAD+ loss was halted. NMN also significantly normalised retina vasculature.
The age of the mother affects fertility. As we age, our oocyte quality declines. An oocyte is an immature egg cell and the very beginning of human life. Through ovulation, the oocyte matures to become an ovum or egg.
Studies have found that NMN supplements can improve the quality of oocytes and increase ovulation in aged mice by recovering NAD+ levels and restoring mitochondrial function. NMN supplements also enhanced meiosis, a type of cell division of germ cells used to produce sperm or egg cells, as well as fertilisation ability.
The research has opened up the possibility of the use of NMN supplements to protect oocytes from advanced maternal age-related deterioration, contributing to improved fertility and responsiveness to assisted reproductive methods. The results of this research also indicate the possibility of NMN slowing down or even reversing menopause.
Cancer cells have high metabolic needs. There have been studies of late that have suggested that cancer cells of many types depend on NAD+ for the energy they need to sustain their rapid growth. So, cutting off NAD+ could possibly kill certain cancer cells.
Senescence happens when ageing, damaged cells stop dividing. While it sounds devastating, senescence can be helpful in suppressing cancer. By promoting NAD+ levels, senescence of cancer cells can take place. However, this may also lead to the production of inflammatory molecules that, under certain conditions, promote the growth of cancer cells.
The fact that NAD+ production is a key step by which an errant gene causes DNA damage and tumour formation also complicates matters. Mice fed NR enjoyed protection against the harmful effects of the gene.
So, while promising, more research needs to be done on this to fully understand the role of NAD+ metabolism in cancer to balance its cancer-killing effects, which requires a reduction of NAD+ levels, with its age-defying effects, which requires an increase in NAD+ levels.
In a 2018 study published in Cell journal, ageing mice with blood flow problems saw a reactivation of their blood flow after being given NMN.
Led by Dr David Sinclair, a co-director at the Paul F Glenn Centre for Biology of Aging Research at Harvard Medical School, the study discovered that as we age, the number and functions of endothelial cells (ECs) lining the blood vessels decline. This decline affects the supply of nutrients, oxygen, exchange of heat, and removal of waste products which accelerates the ageing process. Along with ageing comes a slew of age-related complications including a drop in strength and endurance.
NAD+ precursors like NMN and NR could reverse all this
NMN can be found naturally in a number of foods including broccoli, cabbage, cucumber, tomatoes, edamame and avocado. That is the good news.
The not so good news is that you would have to eat copious amounts of these foods to get the beneficial effects of NMN. To get just 1mg of NMN, you would have to eat 1kg of any of these foods and we need hundreds of milligrams of NMN:
Unlike other supplements, NMN enters the bloodstream directly and activates within minutes, making it truly fast-acting.
However, NMN may deplete the natural reserve of methyl groups in the body. Methyl groups are organic compounds that are needed for many important processes in the body including normal cell replication at the DNA level, production of neurotransmitters, antioxidants and energy, heavy metal detoxification as well as regulation of cardiovascular and nervous system activities.
When NMN is converted into NAD+, nicotinamide (NAM) is formed. High levels of NAM can be harmful. To get rid of the NAM, the body needs to methylate it into N-methyl nicotinamide which is then excreted in the urine. This process draws from the methyl groups in the body which might otherwise be used for other vital functions.
There is a possibility that taking trimethylglycine (TMG), an amino acid known as betaine, might help because it donates a methyl group, replenishing the methyl groups in the body.
More research needs to be done to confirm this.
This FDA registered supplement is produced via low-temperature fermentation to ensure maximum bioavailability and purity. It contains no artificial colours, flavours or preservatives. Vegan safe, non-GMO, gluten free and soy free, each batch is tested by a third party for quality and purity.
It promises increased NAD+ levels that promote healthy ageing and repair of damaged DNA as well as increased energy, and cell vitality and fatigue.
NMN supplements in powder form is less expensive to make than NMN capsules. So, these make for a more pocket-friendly option.
Made from high purity NMN, this product has been fully tested by third party laboratories and is certified more than 99% pure. An NAD+ booster, it aids in weight loss and anti-ageing.
Studies have shown that sublingual intake (put under the tongue) of NMN is the fastest and most effective method of getting NMN into the blood.
For quality assurance, these NMN supplements are triple lab tested and have the Certificate of Analysis (COA) certificates that establish that the product has been analytically tested and has met specifications of safety and quality. They also contain monk fruit abstract that greatly enhances the taste.
This product delivers NMN is liposomal form which is believed to be more bioavailable than NMN in powder form. Liposomal form in when the supplement is encased within very tiny fat-like particles, making it easier for the body to absorb. This allows the supplement to reach the necessary cells faster. This supplement also contains 50mg of TMG to replenish methyl groups in the body.
The product has been tested for COA, potency, heavy metals and pesticide residue and ingredients identity as well.
Here is another COA certified, third party tested NMN supplement. Up to eight capsules a day before food are recommended.
The capsules are gluten-free, soy-free and non-GMO certified, too.
The NMN that goes into this supplement is sourced from the biotech company that supplied the product for the first human research trial on NMN safety. Stable at room temperature, apart from tablets, they also offer NMN in powder form and lozenges.
COA certified, these capsules provide 138mg of quality, pure NMN each. These capsules are gluten-free, soy-free, non-GMO certified as well.
Thus far, limited human trials seem to indicate that NMN supplements are safe and have no side effects. 10 healthy men were given varying doses of NMN supplements – 100, 250 and 500mg. The single oral administration of NMN appeared to cause no significant clinical symptoms or changes in main biomarkers like heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation and body temperature.
Much of the research on the benefits of NMN have only been done on mice. There is no evidence yet that what it does for mice will be what it will do for humans. In fact, what works on animals can have unexpected effects on people. For example, a large clinical trial of beta carotene showed that it increased instead of decreased the risk of lung cancer in smokers.
Research by Elysium Health, a dietary supplements company, showed that NAD supplements resulted in a small but significant increase in cholesterol levels though more studies need to be done to see if the results were real or a matter of chance. Another study suggested that NAD could influence the growth of some cancers though researchers admitted that the results were still too preliminary to be conclusive.
In addition, researchers are not sure how much of the NAD ingested will into the muscles and organs, and how it will impact the body at the cellular level.
In the first clinical trial on humans, though, NMN supplements were studied for their safety and they appeared to be well tolerated with no adverse side effects. They were also absorbed into human tissues much faster than NR, making it more promising. In phase two, the plan is to study the efficacy of NMN as well as appropriate dosage and frequency.
Supplements, not considered food or drugs, are not as strictly regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is the US. Proving safety and efficacy are then entirely up to the manufacturers and this would take long-term studies that have yet to be conducted. In addition, ageing is not considered a disease. Any supplement designed to combat ageing and improve longevity cannot undergo the same clinical trials as medicines.
For now, there is more data on the short-term safety of NR supplements. Even then, safe does not equal effectiveness. Clinical trials funded by ChromaDex and Elysium show that adults taking NR-containing supplements for six to eight weeks experience increased levels of NAD+ in their blood without serious side effects. But how this elevated level can improve health is something researchers are still working to prove.
There is a lot of money riding on any supplement that promises youthful longevity. Here is where objectivity might be called into question. Much of the research in this field is backed by major companies keen to market a lucrative product. When scientists and corporations collaborate, there is concern that economics might compromise science in the haste to push out a product.