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Across culture, time and gender, the eyes have been considered central to the human concept of beauty. In 2017, psychologist Daniel Gill at the University of Winchester in Hampshire led a study that found that both men and women rated the eyes as the most important feature when looking for a potential partner. It is not for nothing, then, that they call the eyes the “windows to the soul”.
That is why keeping your peepers bright and sparkling is so important and why even the skin around the eyes can affect how beautiful your eyes look. In fact, the skin under the eyes is so delicate and sensitive that many things can affect it, causing it to look puffy or, worse, darken in what is commonly known as “dark circles” or “panda eyes”.
Image Source: MedicalNewsToday
Dark circles are dark blemishes around the eyes. The skin beneath the eye gets its colour from blood vessels, pigment in the skin and the thickness of the skin. When the pigment in the skin below the eyes darkens or blood vessels in the area dilate making the blood in them more apparent, the resulting deepening of colour and redness give the skin a purple or blue to dark brown or black colour, depending on the original skin colour.
Because the skin under the eye is thinner – the skin around the eyes is about 0.5mm in thickness compared to the average 2mm elsewhere – such changes can be more clearly seen than anywhere else. Dark circles can afflict anyone – men, women and even children. While it poses no health risks, it does make a person look more tired, older or even ill.
That is why getting rid of those dark circles are so important. But to deal with the dark circles, we need to first understand the causes of those circles because knowing the causes will help determine the most effective treatment.
Lack of sleep or poor sleeping habits is often the first thing people blame when it comes to dark circles. Sleep deprivation, fatigue, oversleeping or simply staying up after hours can cause skin to became dull and pale. Since the skin under the eyes are thinner to begin with, all this makes the dark tissues and blood vessels in that area more visible.
When the body is tired, it produces more cortisol as well. This is the chemical that helps boost energy levels to keep you awake. Cortisol also increases the volume of blood in the body. This causes the vessels to be engorged. The skin under the eyes are thinner, as mentioned. So, this engorgement is easier to see and presents as dark circles.
In addition, not enough sleep can increase venous congestion. This build-up of fluid leads to pooled blood in blood vessels, including those under the eyes. These, once more, appear as dark circles. The excess fluid also leads to puffiness around the eyes. Puffy eyelids can cast shadows as can eye bags, making the area under the eyes look darker.
In and of itself, dark circles are harmless. But they may be indicative of the need for a lifestyle change because poor sleeping habits – not enough or too much - can increase health risks. Poor sleep on a regular basis increases the likelihood of obesity, heart disease and diabetes. In fact, just a few nights without proper sleep was enough for some people to develop pre-diabetic symptoms.
Studies also show that there is a co-relation between a lack of sleep and a shortened life expectancy. Getting six hours or less of sleep was found to be associated with a 12% increase in the risk of death. However, the same study also showed that sleeping nine hours or more increased the odds of death by 30%.
Sleep deprivation can affect moods. Not sleeping enough can lead to depression. That is why insomnia is a risk factor for developing depression. Lack of sleep can result in poor mental capacity - a lack of focus, a reduced ability to take in information, impaired judgement and even memory lapses.
In a 2017 study, it was shown that sleepiness does the same things to your brain as drinking alcohol. According to the research, tired neurons respond more slowly, take longer to send signals and, when they do, the signals are weaker.
Dark circles can be hereditary. Family history could be the cause of either especially thin skin under the eyes or an increase in pigmentation in the area which is a condition caused by constricted blood vessels known as hyperpigmentation. Hyperpigmentation happens when the body produces more melanin.
Often as more and more blood accumulate in the capillaries under the eye, these delicate capillaries stretch and strain under the weight. This leads to more leaking and blood pooling and to even darker circles under the eye.
There are studies that show that those with dark circles under their eyes also have family members who are prone to dark circles. This is especially so if the dark circles appear in childhood.
If genetics is the cause of the dark circles under the eyes, the condition is less easy to treat. It could slowly fade with age but it could just as well worsen.
The skin under the eyes is thin and, therefore, translucent. This means that the veins beneath can be more easily seen in people with far skin or those with very little subcutaneous fat supporting the area.
Some people with darker skin tones produce more pigments around the eye which can cause the skin in the area to darken, resulting in dark circles as well.
Ethnicity plays a part in whether you have dark circles under the eyes or not. People with darker skin tend to be more prone to dark circles. So, people of colour such as South Asians and Africans, more than white people, are likely to have dark circles.
As people age, the skin around the eyes thin as well. This makes the blood vessels there more defined. So, dark circles become more prominent in older people.
As people age, they also lose fatty tissues. Collagen production slows down as well. Collagen is a hard, strong and fibrous protein found naturally and abundantly in our bones, muscles, skin and tendons. Collagen actually makes up to a quarter of our total body mass and is the most abundant protein produced in our bodies.
Collagen is necessary for forming a scaffold that gives our body strength and structure. It literally holds our body together. It is also what protects our organs. Collagen contributes to soft, supple skin that is elastic, wrinkle- and line-free. It is an anti-ageing protein.
As a result of the loss of fats and collagen, the area around the eyes become less plump and the skin in the area begin to sag, and tear troughs develop. Tear troughs are hollows or depressions which run from the inner parts of the eyes to the lower eyelids. They can appear as dark circles.
There is another factor that can contribute to hollows beneath the eyes. Deep under the eye area there is a framework for bones, muscles, ligaments, fat pads, lymphatics, nerves and blood vessels that hold everything in place.
These different components age at different rates. That difference is what leads to hollows under the eyes.
The slowdown of collagen production also causes fat to shift to the lower eyelids. This increased puffiness casts shadows that appear as dark circles under the eyes.
That same reduction of collagen production is what contributes to fine lines that appear on the forehead. These lines are linked to heaviness in the eyelids and drooping eyebrows. The hooded eyelids cast a shadow that appears as dark circles under the eye.
Your bone structure can make the area around the eye appear more sunken. This causes shadows to be cast under the eye, making it look like you have dark circles beneath them.
Too much salt intake can cause the body to retain fluids. This can increase the pressure on the skin and blood vessels around the eyes which then forces the blood vessels to move closer to the surface of the skin.
The blood vessels will appear like dark circles under the eye where the skin is thinner.
A lack of iron is one of the most common causes of dark circles under the eyes. Iron deficiency causes anemia. Anemia leads to a low supply of oxygenated blood, causing poor oxygenation in body tissues.
The deoxygenated blood in the area around the eyes can make the skin there appear discoloured. Hence, the dark circles.
When the body does not have enough water, the skin beneath the eyes can become dull-looking and the eyes look sunken due to their close proximity to the underlying bone. This casts a shadow under the eyes, making it look like there are dark circles under them.
Dehydration coupled with too much salt intake can result in puffiness and bloatedness from water retention. That puffiness around the eye can cast a shadow creating dark circles beneath the eyes, too.
Dark circles under the eyes can be indicative of liver dysfunction such as hepatitis. Poor liver function impedes blood circulation. The result is that the blood flowing lacks oxygen. Where the skin is thinner under the eyes, the darker-appearing blood presents as dark circles.
As mentioned, anemia also causes dark circles under the eyes. Menstruation and pregnancy can cause anemia which is why, during these periods, under-eye dark circles are more prominent.
In addition, hormonal changes can result in darkening under the eyes which makes pregnant and menstruating women more vulnerable to dark circles. Thyroid conditions can make dark circles below the eyes more visible. The thyroid is a master gland in the body. It is responsible for proper hormonal functions.
When the thyroid is not functioning well, it can affect blood production resulting in anemia.
The gastrointestinal system, liver, and energy production in the body can all be affected by a poor-performing thyroid since the thyroid determines nutrient delivery and toxin removal from the body. When the body is under such strain, dark circles can appear under the eye.
This is also the reason why prolonged illness can create dark circles, too.
Allergies – whether it is seasonal allergies to pollen or perennial allergies to dust and mould – trigger the release of histamines in the body in response to the harmful bacteria.
Histamines cause an inflammatory response. Blood vessels become inflamed, too. When this happens to the blood vessels under the eyes, it presents as dark circles.
Allergies also cause itchiness in the eyes, increasing the urge to rub the eyes or scratch the surrounding skin. These damage the blood vessels in the area, resulting in dark circles below the eye.
Nicotine causes the narrowing of blood vessels known as vasoconstriction because it increases the level of vasopressin, a protein emitted by the pituitary gland, in the blood.
This reduces the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the tiny vessels in the face or other parts of the body. Where the skin is thinner – such as under the eyes – these vessels with blood low in oxygen appear like dark patches.
Smoking also ages the skin. It induces the production of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) much like what exposure to the sun does. MMP breaks down collagen. Collagen is what makes our skin supple and taut. When skin around the eyes sag, the creases cast shadows under the eyes that look like dark circles.
Smoking ages the skin in other ways. Cigarette smoke has chemicals that produce oxidants. Oxidants cause skin to age by breaking down the collagen and elastin in the skin.
In the skin under the eyes, which is more delicate, the wearing down of the tissues make blood vessels there more prominent. Hence, the dark circles.
In addition, according to a John's Hopkins study, smokers are four times as likely as non-smokers to feel sleepy in the morning because nocturnal nicotine withdrawal symptoms may disrupt sleep patterns. Lack of sleep results in dark circles under the eyes.
Smoking damages skin cells and depletes them of vitamins including Vitamin C which is needed to repair the body. This causes dehydration of the skin as well. We have discussed how dehydration leads to dark circles under the eyes.
Sun overexposure can speed up the process of collagen breaking down. Collagen holds up the infrastructure of the body and gives skin its form and shape. When collagen is reduced, skin wrinkle more easily, creating shadows under the eyes.
Too much sunlight also causes the body to produce excess melanin. Melanin is the pigment that gives skin colour. Too much melanin and the skin under the eye can darken.
Mothers around the world have warned their children not to rub their eyes. They may not have known the reason why or may not have shared them but mothers are absolutely right.
Rubbing the eyes can cause the blood vessels around the eyes to get damaged. This causes the blood in them to leak out in what is known as the oxidisation of blood leaking from the periorbital blood vessels.
The results are puffy eyes with what appears to be dark circles beneath them.
Staring at screens – television, computer or handphone - can strain the eyes. So can reading or driving for long periods of time. Such activities demand a lot of intensity from the eyes and the eyes may feel tired or irritated as a result.
Eye strain can, in turn, cause blood vessels around the eyes to enlarge. The increased flow of blood will make the vessels more obvious and appear as dark circles under the eyes.
Stress can cause sleeplessness, activate allergies, create eye strain. All these can lead to shadows under the eyes.
Some medication can cause blood vessels to dilate. Medication for hypertension is one class of such medication. Drugs such as bimatoprost for glaucoma can also cause dark circles to appear.
Unless the cause of the dark circles under the eyes are genetic, there are ways to prevent those pigmented patches from forming. Consider this a pre-treatment measure.
Once developed, dark circles can be treated by various means which we will explore a little later. But if you could stop these dark circles from even appearing in the first place, or slow down their appearance, part of the problem would be solved or at least delayed.
Eye strain is one of the causes of dark circles beneath the eye. If you can care for your eyes, then you can prevent dark circles from forming under them.
Working long hours in front of the computer is a common phenomenon. In a 2018 study, it was found that the average worker spends over two months a year in front of the computer. This translates to 1,700 hours of screen time.
Mobile device use and television time were not even factored in the study. These can add to the strain on the eyes.
To minimise the strain, cup your eyes in your palms every hour to relax eye muscles and improve blood circulation.
Lighting can affect the eyes as well. Contrary to popular belief, brighter is not better. In fact, eye strain is often caused by overly bright lights either from sunlight through a window or ambient lighting. When using the computer, the lighting indoors should be only about half as bright as lighting found in most offices.
Invest in lower intensity light bulbs. Use fewer light fixtures. Ensure that the light is not directly overhead because the lighting is harsher that way. Floor lamps that provide indirect light are better.
If your computer is in front of a window, close the drapes or shades. If possible, position your computer so that the windows are to the side of you or behind you.
Minimising glare can help eye strain as well. Glare can come from light reflected off walls or surfaces. Buy an anti-glare screen for your computer.
Glare can come from the computer screen, too. If possible, work in spaces with darker walls instead of pure white ones.
If you wear spectacles, obtain anti-reflective (AR) coating for your lenses. AR coating reduces glare by minimising the amount of light reflecting off the front and back surfaces of the lenses.
When buying a new computer, get one with the highest resolution possible. Resolution is related to the "dot pitch" of the display. The lower the dot pitch, the sharper the image. Go for a display with a dot pitch of 0.28mm or smaller.
Larger displays – at least 19 inches – are also preferred. Opt for text sizes that make you comfortable. If you find yourself squinting, it is too small.
Reduce the colour temperature of your display. Blue light is short-wavelength visible light. This type of light strains the eyes more than longer wavelength lights such as orange and red lights. So, reduce the colour temperature of your display so that the amount of blue light is less.
Then, adjust the brightness of your display so it approximates that of your surroundings. As a test, look at the white background of a Webpage. If it looks like a light source, it is too bright. If it seems dull and grey, it is too dark.
Improper diet can affect your health and this can cause dark circles under the eyes to develop.
Eat well. Have enough fresh fruits and vegetables. Fruits provide Vitamin C. Vitamin C promotes the production of collagen in the body.
Many leafy greens are rich in iron. Fruits and vegetables also contain anti-oxidants that can combat the damaging effects of oxidants that cause dark circles.
Avoid preservative-laden food that are high in salt content.
Flavonol-rich foods like dark chocolate are good as well. They protect against the harmful effects of UV radiation from sun exposure which cause ageing.
Foods that have omega3 fatty acid such as salmon and walnuts can improve blood circulation which can resolve the pooling of blood under the eyes that appear as dark circles.
Drink plenty of water. 10-12 glasses a day is advised. Hydration flushes out toxins in the body. It also prevents water retention that can lead to puffiness around the eyes that casts a shadow.
Not only is eating right important, living right is important as well. Sleep well. Aim for seven hours a night.
Studies have shown that not only is adequate sleep important, when you sleep is vital as well. Our body functions according to the circadian rhythm. Among many things it does, the circadian rhythm tells you when to sleep.
The best time to go to bed is between 10pm and 11pm because between 10pm and 2am is when the circadian rhythm causes us to have the deepest sleep. This means that even if you get the requisite seven hours of rest, but they do not fall within those times of deep, restorative sleep, you are likely to feel tired and sleep deprived. That can affect your health.
Your sleep posture can help as well. Sleeping on your side or on your stomach causes fluids to collect under your eyes because of gravity. So, try sleeping on your back.
Manage stress. Do not smoke. Limit alcohol intake. Alcohol dehydrates because it acts as a diuretic, causing your body to lose fluids.
Be liberal in the use of sunscreen, not just for the exposed parts of the body but on your face as well. Wear UV protection sunglasses that can shield the skin around your eyes.
Vigorous rubbing of the areas around the eyes – when it itches, when you are washing your face or removing make-up – can damage the skin and thin capillaries there resulting in dark circles under the eyes.
So, be gentle. Use make-up remover that can effectively and easily remove the make-up without too much rubbing or tugging of the skin.
If you are coming into this a little too late and you already have dark circles under your eyes, do not despair. The situation can be salvaged.
Do not jump at just any process, procedure or product promising to obliterate those dark circles just yet.
This is because determining the type of treatment that is most effective for you involves knowing the cause of your dark circles.
If the cause of your dark circles in anything that the preventive measures mapped out above can help, then begin to work on those first.
Change your diet, change your lifestyle, change your skincare routine, change how you treat your eyes. If allergies are the cause of your dark circles, antihistamines will clear both the allergies and the dark circles.
If vascular issues is the cause of your dark circles, sleeping on pillows – one or two – can help. It raises the head and prevents blood from building up under the eyes.
Apply a cold compress on your eyes for five minutes every morning. This constricts the blood vessels under the eyes.
There are several easy-to-find items that you can use for your cold compress and most are readily available in the home.
You can use cucumbers. They are high in water content and rich in Vitamin C that is good for the skin because it encourages collagen production. They also contain silica, which is essential for healthy tissues. Their skin-lightening and mild astringent properties enhance their ability to reduce dark circles.
Alternatively, try tomatoes. Full of Vitamin C, A and B as well as sulphur, iron, potassium, phosphorous and calcium, its bleaching properties add to its effectiveness in treating dark circles. Slap a slice on each eye and let the fruit do its magic.
There are other ingredients in your kitchen that can be used to treat dark circles. Potatoes is one of them. The spuds have lots of Vitamin C. So, grate them, extract the juice and soak cotton pads in them. Place these pads over the eyes for a few minutes. Like cucumbers, potatoes also have skin-lightening properties.
The other thing you can get from your pantry are used tea bags. Tea contains anti-oxidants as well as caffeine that can stimulate blood circulation, shrink blood vessels and reduce water retention under the skin. Chill them for a more soothing experience.
In fact, a 2015 study found that using a pad soaked in caffeine and Vitamin K under the eye not only reduced dark circles, they also reduced wrinkles.
Cold milk works, too. Dairy products like milk are a rich source of Vitamin A which contains retinoids that keep skin looking bright and young. Soak cotton pads in the milk and apply the pads onto the eyes.
Juices like orange are great as well because of its high content of Vitamins A and C.
Massage the area around your eyes with a mixture of coconut oil and almond oil. Do this daily with a gentle circular motion for about an hour. This promotes blood circulation.
Coconut oil is recommended because it contains a high concentration of small-chain fatty acids that reduce inflammation and increase blood circulation. As an oil, it also moisturises and makes it easier to massage the eyes without damaging the surrounding skin.
Almond oil contains Vitamin E which is good for the skin. It also has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
4. Natural eye creams
Mix turmeric with pineapple juice to create a paste. Apply this under the eyes. Leave it to work for at least 10 minutes before washing it off.
Turmeric is a powerful anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory. Pineapple juice has Vitamin C that makes it a good skin toner.
Creams that can slow down the effects of ageing are effective for treating dark circles under the eyes as well. Eye creams with caffeine can help constrict blood vessels under the eye. Eye creams which have anti-inflammatory properties such as arnica-based creams are effective, too. Eye creams with black tea or grape seed oil can strengthen the walls of capillaries under the eye.
Collagen-building creams and products with Vitamin C can help brighten the skin around the eyes. Its anti-oxidant properties are a plus. A study looked at the effects of a lotion with 10% of Vitamin C in it that was used to treat dark circles for six months. It found that the lotion was effective in lightening the pigmented patches. Look out for creams that have anti-oxidants like Vitamins C and E. They are recommended for combating the underlying causes of dark circles.
Creams which have bleaching properties can reduce hyperpigmentation. Look out for creams that contain hydroquinone, tretinoin or both. Other skin-lightening creams are those with azelaic acid, kojic acid or glycolic acid. At lower concentrations, these creams can be bought over the counter though those with higher percentages of the ingredients need a dermatologist’s prescription. Creams that contain hyaluronic acid can hydrate skin, restoring some of its youthful plumbness. This can counter dehydration that is one of the causes of the dark circles.
Retinol, a Vitamin A derivative, can present fine lines and wrinkles by promoting cell regeneration in the skin. This can alleviate the severity of dark circles.
Another way to get all the nutrients onto the skin under the eyes to combat dark circles is to use under-eye masks.
The patches, worn beneath the eye, are preferred by many because the gel used has a less oily feel compared to creams. Their cool texture feels soothing and they are also easier to use than applying creams.
If you cannot beat them, hide them. A good concealer can hide the dark circles. When choosing concealers, it is important to consider your skin tone. If the dark circles under your eyes have a blue tone, you will need an orange-based concealer.
For dark circles bordering on the blueish to purplish, combine orange- and yellow-based concealers to create a peachy, salmon blend. If your dark circles are primarily purplish, opt for a yellow-based concealer.
Taking supplements can help if the cause of your dark circles is dietary deficiencies. Collagen supplements, as well as iron and Vitamin C supplements, are readily available.
So far, the treatments discussed are non-invasive. If they do not work, the alternative would be cosmetic or medical procedures, many of which are invasive.
One of the main components of facials is the massage. On their own, massages are great for promoting blood circulation which improves dark circles under the eyes.
When used in tandem with products that have ingredients that combat under-eye pigmentation, they can be beneficial. If nothing else, facials are highly soothing and can help relief stress which is one of the causes of dark circles.
If seeking cosmetic treatments, make sure to consult a certified dermatologist. The pros of such treatments are that they can be highly effective in treating dark circles and their effects tend to last longer as well.
The cons are the cost as well as the fact that some of them can be invasive. Fillers are effective if the cause of the dark circles is the loss of fatty tissue. Injections of platelet-rich plasma or hyaluronic acid gel can be used to fill out hollows and restore volume under the eyes that create shadows. The effect can last up to five years.
Chemical peels are procedures where chemicals are used to exfoliate the skin to allow new skin to grow. This new skin tends to be smoother and more radiant. Chemical alpha hydroxy acids like glycolic acid, retinoic acid or hydroquinone can lighten hyperpigmentation. A Jessner peel which includes the use of a combination of salicylic acid, lactic acid, and resorcinol might be used, too.
Microneedling delivers controlled injury to the skin and can stimulate collagen production. In addition, it allows anti-ageing serums to penetrate deeper into the skin. One small study indicated that microneedling may help reduce the appearance of wrinkles as well, smoothening the skin which can contribute to the reduction of dark circles.
Thermage is a procedure that uses radio frequency to heat the deeper layers of the skin which is rich in collagen. The heat causes the collagen to contract, encouraging new collagen to be produced. Another way to promote collagen production is through the use of ultrasound in a procedure called Ultherapy. Laser therapy uses heat energy to vapourise damaged cells. Because they are very targeted, lasers can focus on the small patch under the eyes.
Blepharoplasty is a type of surgery that can get rid of dark circles that are due to the deposit of fats or extra skin around the eyes that then cast shadows under the eyes.
These cooling patches contain one entire bottle’s worth of moisture-rich serum, making them deeply hydrating. This makes the sheets excellent for getting rid of puffy eyes and wrinkles which are caused by dehydration and which can create shadows under the eyes.
It also has a herb known as eyebright or “glowing eyes”. Eyebright is effective for healing damaged skin and increasing the skin’s elasticity thus restoring a radiant glow to the skin around the eyes.
Euphrasia extract in the ingredient removes toxins from the skin that cause premature ageing and reduces pigmentation. Acetyl hexapeptide-1 normalises melanin synthesis to increase the skin’s resistance to harmful UV rays and other harsh environmental factors. In addition, hyaluronic acid both moisturises the skin and locks in the moisture.
The use of rosemary leaf extract gives the sheets a mild, pleasing scent. Each of the 60 sheets is ultra thin at just 0.3mm thick. Made of cotton fibre, the material is both comfortable and allows the ingredients to easily penetrate the skin.
Each sheet covers the inner to the outer corner of the eyes. Leave them on for 10 to 15 minutes for the best effect.
Where to buy: Melo! the Japanese store at TripleOne Somerset. You can order it online from the store.
This serum is designed to combat loss of elasticity around the eyes that is the cause of fine lines. It contains retinol, a type of Vitamin A that promotes collagen production. The anti-oxidant ferulic acid in the ingredients is plant-based and enhances the properties of the other vitamins, increasing the hydration afforded by the retinol.
The gel-like serum is easy to apply and readily absorbed into the skin, leaving it feeling hydrated. 93% of those who used the product saw the lines around their eyes diminished in just three weeks according to a study conducted by the company.
Where to buy: Lazada
This lightweight gel that glides smoothly onto the skin promises to work while you sleep. The concentrated formula uses the patented ChronoluxCB technology, the natural synchronisation of your skin’s repair process at night, to ensure 24-hour hydration.
It also eradicates the harmful effects of free radical damage, insufficient rest, UV rays, pollution and even blue light emitted by computer screens. In addition, it brightens the skin. The result are eyes that look rested and lightened skin under the eyes.
Where to buy: Qoo10.sg
Source: Amazon Singapore
This vegan-friendly cream specifically targets dark circles. It contains Rosa Roxburghii. The powerful anti-oxidant is rich in Vitamins A, C and E – all the necessary vitamins for cell repair and collagen-production.
The mica particles used diffuses light to mimic a full night’s rest while the rich formula blends easily into the skin to hydrate even the driest of skin types.
Where to buy: iShop Changi
Source: Amazon Singapore
This hyaluronic acid serum deals with dark circles caused by dehydration. It works by drawing moisture from the air onto your skin to plump it up and make it firmer.
Developed with exclusive VITISENSCETM Technology that has powerful antioxidants found in Vitis flower stem cells extract, it also contains collagen-boosting peptides that encourage your body’s collagen production necessary for smooth, youthful skin.
Where to buy: Zalora
Source: Makeup Alley
This lightweight hydrating cream is clinically proven to lighten dark circles by 30% in 12 weeks. The formula hydrates the under-eye area, removing the puffiness there.
It also contains ingredients that strengthen the skin under the eyes, making it less transparent. Since thin skin in that area is one of the contributing factors of the appearance of dark circles under the eyes, this is a bonus.
Where to buy: Best Buy World Singapore
Do not let its name fool you. This cream works for dark circles, too. So, you get two effects for the price of one.
It contains retinol as well as hyaluronic acid to hydrate and plump up skin to reduce wrinkles, dark circles, age spots as well as crow’s feet. It also brightens the skin to create a dewy-fresh appearance. The fast-acting cream promises to rejuvenate your skin in just one week.
Where to buy: iHerb
Source: Qoo10 Singapore
Wrinkle-reduction, de-puffing capabilities and skin-brightening effect – these are the three effects this eye cream promises.
It is formulated with three of the top recommended ingredients for skin treatment – retinol, hyaluronic acid and Vitamin C – to smoothen, soften and hydrate skin for 24 hours a time. Glycerin and dimethicone which help to plump up the skin as well as caffeine that promotes blood circulation are part of its ingredients, too.
After a week, visible results are promised.
Where to buy: amazon.sg
Source: Perfume Store Singapore
This eye cream has the company’s patented Neoglucosamine and is packed with hydroxy acids, hyaluronic acid and peptides, all that are necessary for smooth, toned, taut and hydrated skin that improves dark circles around the eyes.
With fruit extracts among its ingredients, the treatment also has anti-oxidant properties that combat skin damage which contributes to ageing and dark circles. Caffeine within its formula reduces puffiness as well.
Where to buy: Carethy
Source: Look Fantastic Singapore
This is an overnight emollient balm that contains caffeine, glycerin, sodium hyaluronate, and Vitamins C and E to improve blood circulation, hydration and collagen production while protecting from the detrimental effects of environmental pollutants. Of special note is the wild yam extract it contains to tighten skin and tackle sagginess and rough texture that comes with age.
So, you know your skin with be rejuvenated and restored to smooth, youthful plumpness when you use it. Ophthalmologist- and dermatologist-approved and free of colourants and fragrances, this eye balm is perfect even for people with sensitive skin.
Where to buy: lookfantastic